Appetite and Metabolism it’s very impotent spheres. Hunger is probably a dieter’s single biggest complaint. Follow most diet plans, and, after a few days, your appetite will become uncontrollable. One reason most diets fail is that do not take into consideration how different foods stimulate your appetite-regulating hormones. Some foods will cause a hormonal reaction that will send a signal to your brain that your body needs, more food. These signals can be so strong that they become almost impossible to resist. No matter how strong-willed you are, eventually, you are going to go off your diet and end up binge eating. Once this happens, it is likely that you will end up gaining more weight than you previously lost.
An example of an appetite-regulating hormone is cholecystokinin (CCK), which is released when you eat certain foods-such as various proteins and vegetable-and signals your brain that you have eaten enough. An added benefit of these foods is that they do not stimulate insulin levels or promote fat storage. However, eating foods that boost insulin, such as starchy carbohydrates, may initially make you feel full due to their bulk, but they do not promote the release of CCK and will cause you to become hungry again quickly. This affects your appetite negatively in two ways; (1) it makes you consume more food and calories to feel full, and (2) the insulin stimulation causes your body to store the calories as fat.
Pharmaceutical companies are spending millions of dollars on research to find a drug that mimics the effects of appetite-regulating hormones and effectively suppresses your appetite. The infamous “phen-fen” drug combination was one of the few treatments that were successful appetite suppressants. Unfortunately, it was also extremely dangerous to your health and ended up being removed from the market.
But you do not need expensive, potentially harmful drugs to control your appetite. Many foods have “drug-like” effects on your appetite-regulating hormones. Just as some foods will you make hungrier, others, such as high fiber vegetables or lean sources of protein, can almost completely suppress your appetite with very few calories. I have carefully developed the diet program in the article below so that you never have to feel hungry. In fact, I have found that some of the testiest foods nature has to offer are among the most effective in suppressing your appetite. These are foods that trigger hormonal reactions that signal your brain to stop eating.
Metabolism is a term that is used to describe all chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living state of the cells and the organism. Metabolism can be conveniently divided into two categories:
Metabolism is closely linked to nutrition and the availability of nutrients. Bioenergetics is a term that describes the biochemical or metabolic pathways by which the cell ultimately obtains energy. Energy formation is one of the vital components of metabolism.
Nutrition, metabolism, and energy Nutrition is the key to metabolism. The pathways of metabolism rely upon nutrients that break down in order to produce energy. This energy in turn is required by the body to synthesize new proteins, nucleic acids (DNA, RNA), etc.
Nutrients in relation to metabolism encompass bodily requirements for various substances, individual functions in the body, the amount needed, a level below which poor health results, etc.
Essential nutrients supply energy (calories) and supply the necessary chemicals which the body itself cannot synthesize. Food provides a variety of substances that are essential for the building, upkeep, and repair of body tissues, and for the efficient functioning of the body.
The diet needs essential nutrients like carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and around 20 other inorganic elements. The major elements are supplied in carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. In addition, vitamins, minerals and water are necessary.
Foods supply carbohydrates in three forms: starch, sugar, and cellulose (fiber). Starches and sugars form major and essential sources of energy for humans. Fibers contribute to bulk in the diet. Body tissues depend on glucose for all activities. Carbohydrates and sugars yield glucose by digestion or metabolism.
The overall reaction for the combustion of glucose is written as:
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 —–> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy
Most people consume around half of their diet as carbohydrates. This comes from rice, wheat, bread, potatoes, pasta, macaroni, etc.
Proteins are the main tissue builders in the body. They are part of every cell in the body. Proteins help in cell structure, functions, hemoglobin formation to carry oxygen, enzymes to carry out vital reactions, and a myriad of other functions in the body. Proteins are also vital in supplying nitrogen for DNA and RNA genetic material and energy production. Proteins are necessary for nutrition because they contain amino acids. Among the 20 or more amino acids, the human body is unable to synthesize 8 and these are called essential amino acids.
Foods with the best quality protein are eggs, milk, soybeans, meats, vegetables, and grains. Fats are concentrated sources of energy. They produce twice as much energy as either carbohydrates or protein on a weight basis.
Essential fatty acids include unsaturated fatty acids like linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic acids. These need to be taken in diet. Saturated fats, along with cholesterol, have been implicated in arteriosclerosis and heart disease.
The minerals in foods do not contribute directly to energy needs but are important as body regulators and play a role in metabolic pathways of the body. More than 50 elements are found in the human body. About 25 elements have been found to be essential, since a
deficiency produces specific deficiency symptoms.
Vitamins are essential organic compounds that the human body cannot synthesize by itself and must, therefore, be present in the diet. Vitamins particularly important in metabolism include:
The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways. These allow the basic chemicals from nutrition to be transformed through a series of steps into another chemical, by a sequence of enzymes.
Enzymes are crucial to metabolism because they allow organisms to drive desirable reactions that require energy. These reactions also are coupled with those that release energy. As enzymes act as catalysts they allow these reactions to proceed quickly and efficiently.
Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell’s environment or signals from other cells.